Comandos bash

An A-Z Index of the Bash command line for Linux.




alias Crea un alias

apropos Busca ayuda en las paginas del manual (man -k)

apt-get Busca e instala paquetes de software (Debian)

aspell Corrector ortográfico

awk Encuentra y remplaza texto, database sort/validate/index



bash GNU Bourne-Again SHell

bc lenguaje de calculadora de precisión arbitraria

bg envía al background (segundo plano)

break Sale de un 76

builtin Run a shell builtin

bzip2 Compress or decompress named file(s)



cal Muestra un calendario

case Conditionally perform a command

cat Muestra el contenido de un archivo

cd Cambia de directorio

cfdisk Manipulador de la tabla de partición para Linux

chgrp Cambia el grupo propietario

chmod Cambia los permisos de acceso

chown Change file owner and group

chroot Run a command with a different root directory

chkconfig System services (runlevel)

cksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts

clear Clear terminal screen

cmp Compare two files

comm Compare two sorted files line by line

command Run a command – ignoring shell functions

continue Resume the next iteration of a loop

cp Copia uno o más archivos a otra locación

cron Daemon to execute scheduled commands

crontab Schedule a command to run at a later time

csplit Split a file into context-determined pieces

cut Divide un archivo en varias partes



date Muestra o cambia la fecha y hora

dc Desk Calculator

dd Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records

ddrescue Data recovery tool

declare Declare variables and give them attributes

df Muestra el espacio libre en el disco

diff Display the differences between two files

diff3 Show differences among three files

dig DNS lookup

dir Briefly list directory contents

dircolors Colour setup for `ls’

dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path

dirs Display list of remembered directories

dmesg Print kernel & driver messages

du Estimate file space usage



echo Muestra un mensaje en la pantalla

egrep Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression

eject Abre el medio removible

enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands

env Environment variables

ethtool Ethernet card settings

eval Evaluate several commands/arguments

exec Execute a command

exit Exit the shell

expect Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal

expand Convert tabs to spaces

export Set an environment variable

expr Evaluate expressions



false Do nothing, unsuccessfully

fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk

fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux

fg Send job to foreground

fgrep Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string

file Determine file type

find Search for files that meet a desired criteria

fmt Reformat paragraph text

fold Wrap text to fit a specified width.

for Expand words, and execute commands

format Format disks or tapes

free Display memory usage

fsck File system consistency check and repair

ftp File Transfer Protocol

function Define Function Macros

fuser Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file



gawk Find and Replace text within file(s)

getopts Parse positional parameters

grep Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern

groups Print group names a user is in

gzip Compress or decompress named file(s)



hash Remember the full pathname of a name argument

head Output the first part of file(s)

history Command History

hostname Print or set system name



id Print user and group id’s

if Conditionally perform a command

ifconfig Configure a network interface

ifdown Stop a network interface

ifup Start a network interface up

import Capture an X server screen and save the image to file

install Copy files and set attributes



join Join lines on a common field



kill Stop a process from running

killall Kill processes by name



less Display output one screen at a time

let Perform arithmetic on shell variables

ln Make links between files

local Create variables

locate Find files

logname Print current login name

logout Exit a login shell

look Display lines beginning with a given string

lpc Line printer control program

lpr Off line print

lprint Print a file

lprintd Abort a print job

lprintq List the print queue

lprm Remove jobs from the print queue

ls List information about file(s)

lsof List open files



make Recompile a group of programs

man Help manual

mkdir Create new folder(s)

mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes)

mkisofs Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem

mknod Make block or character special files

more Display output one screen at a time

mount Mount a file system

mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files

mv Move or rename files or directories

mmv Mass Move and rename (files)



netstat Networking information

nice Set the priority of a command or job

nl Number lines and write files

nohup Run a command immune to hangups

nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively



open Open a file in its default application

op Operator access



passwd Modify a user password

paste Merge lines of files

pathchk Check file name portability

ping Test a network connection

pkill Stop processes from running

popd Restore the previous value of the current directory

pr Prepare files for printing

printcap Printer capability database

printenv Print environment variables

printf Format and print data

ps Process status

pushd Save and then change the current directory

pwd Print Working Directory



quota Display disk usage and limits

quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage

quotactl Set disk quotas



ram ram disk device

rcp Copy files between two machines

read read a line from standard input

readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly

reboot Reboot the system

renice Alter priority of running processes

remsync Synchronize remote files via email

return Exit a shell function

rev Reverse lines of a file

rm Remove files

rmdir Remove folder(s)

rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)



screen Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh

scp Secure copy (remote file copy)

sdiff Merge two files interactively

sed Stream Editor

select Accept keyboard input

seq Print numeric sequences

set Manipulate shell variables and functions

setxkbmap Manipular y consultar el teclado

sftp Secure File Transfer Program

shift Shift positional parameters

shopt Shell Options

shutdown Shutdown or restart linux

sleep Delay for a specified time

slocate Find files

sort Sort text files

source Run commands from a file `.’

split Split a file into fixed-size pieces

ssh Secure Shell client (remote login program)

strace Trace system calls and signals

su Substitute user identity

sudo Execute a command as another user

sum Print a checksum for a file

symlink Make a new name for a file

sync Synchronize data on disk with memory



tail Output the last part of files

tar Tape ARchiver

tee Redirect output to multiple files

test Evaluate a conditional expression

time Measure Program running time

times User and system times

touch Change file timestamps

top List processes running on the system

traceroute Trace Route to Host

trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)

tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters

true Do nothing, successfully

tsort Topological sort

tty Print filename of terminal on stdin

type Describe a command



ulimit Limit user resources

umask Users file creation mask

umount Unmount a device

unalias Remove an alias

uname Print system information

unexpand Convert spaces to tabs

uniq Uniquify files

units Convert units from one scale to another

unset Remove variable or function names

unshar Unpack shell archive scripts

until Execute commands (until error)

useradd Create new user account

usermod Modify user account

users List users currently logged in

uuencode Encode a binary file

uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode



v Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)

vdir Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)

vi Text Editor

vmstat Report virtual memory statistics



watch Execute/display a program periodically

wc Print byte, word, and line counts

whereis Report all known instances of a command

which Locate a program file in the user’s path.

while Execute commands

who Print all usernames currently logged in

whoami Print the current user id and name (`id -un’)

Wget Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP

write Send a message to another user



xargs Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)

yes Print a string until interrupted

. Run a command script in the current shell

### Comment / Remark





Primera línea de los script en bash

Comentarios en bash

Crear comandos propios

Instalar varios programas a la vez con una sola línea

Bucles, loops o ciclo

Punto y coma (;)

Apóstrofe simple o plic (')

Aspas (")

Contrabarra, barra invertida, barra inversa, diagonal invertida, anti slash o back slash (/)

Acento grave, acento invertido, backquote (`)

Redireccionamento de la Salida Patrón (> y >>)

Redireccionamento de la salida de error patrón (2> y 2>>)

Tubería, pipe o |

Bombas Fork

Para encontrar comandos UNIX con la shell

avimerge Une varios archivos AVI en un solo file. Ahorra tiempo, no cambia la calidad del vídeo y se puede añadir o cambiar las pistas de audio.

banner imprime un título grande en la impresora

cdrkit colección de programas de computación para la grabación de cd/dvd que funciona en sistemas Unix-like. Fork de cdrtools; su desarrollo fue iniciado por el Proyecto Debian, la versión estable más reciente es 1.1.6; liberada el 6 de mayo del 2007. Es multiplataforma con licencia GLP2. Página oficial es

clive es una línea de comando para descargar vídeos desde Youtube y otros similares sitios de vídeo que requieran Adobe Flash para ver el contenido de vídeo.

figlet aplicación informática que genera banners de texto, en varias tipografías, formadas por letras compuestas por conglomerados de caracteres ASCII más pequeños.

hdparm Obtiene y/o ajusta los parámetros para los dispositivos SATA/IDE.

exiv2 Herramienta para la manipulación de metadata de las imagenes.

ffplay Reproductor asociado a ffmpeg

latex Definición de LaTeX según la Wikipedia: "es un sistema de composición de textos, orientado especialmente a la creación de libros, documentos científicos y técnicos que contengan fórmulas matemáticas."


MPlayer Reproductor

youtube-dl sirve para bajar vídeos de y otros sitios desde la terminal.

xgamma Corrección gamma


Atajos de teclado (shortcut) para la shell de Bash

Activar y desactivar la swap (swapon y swapoff)





20 respuestas a “Comandos bash

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